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The names on the walls

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Limburg 1940-1945,
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  6. Valkenburg 1940-1945
  7. Lessons from the resistance

1940-1945 Special events and backgrounds in the dutch province of Limburg

The eight people in Limburg 1940-’45 whose data were last added or edited: • Fons  Berger • Harry /Ford  Holla • Constant  Cornips • Karel  van Berckel • Jacques  Crasborn • Willem  Heber • Jozef  Gulikers • Joseph  van Hulst

National Socialism and Racism | The genocide of the Jews in Limburg | The genocide of the Romani in Limburg and elsewhere | The resistance in Valkenburg | SiPo Maastricht | The Englandspiel | The OD trial of Maastricht | The Danger of Lists | The Hannibal game | The strikes of April-May 1943 | A military training camp for people in hiding | Between Maas and Peel | The Treason of Maastricht | The Raid of Weert | The Raid on the Distribution Office in Valkenburg | The Strike of Wittem | Eleven imprisoned resistance fighters from Nijmegen murdered | The raid on the Maastricht prison | Revenge actions during the liberation of southern Limburg | Winter ’44-’45 in the liberated territory | The Tears of Roermond | The forced evacuation to Friesland, Groningen and Drente |

The genocide of the Jews in Limburg


On September 11, 1955, in memory of the deported and killed Jewish inhabitants of Valkenburg, a memorial stone was placed on the Jewish cemetery on the Cauberg.
More info on the fate of the Jews in Valkenburg


Vervolgd in Limburg (Prosecuted in Limburg). That is the title of the dissertation by the historian Herman van Rens.
He states on p. 371 that two factors played an important role in saving an above-average number of Jews:

  1. A tightly cooperating group in which people knew each other very well, preferably from before the war, and
  2. the presence of inspiring people who took the lead.

In summary: “A small group of moral leaders in Limburg showed the way of practical charity. Their positive example made it easy to follow them.”
He notes, that point 2 played a decisive role in the numbers of saved Jews. [1, p.371]
During the Second World War, about a thousand people were taken to their violent deaths in Dutch Limburg for racist reasons, Van Rens writes in his introduction. The vast majority of them Jews. There are detailed tables at the end of his book.
When the deportations of the Jews began, many people, including most Jews themselves, did not immediately realize the seriousness of the situation. They wanted to believe the propaganda that it was "only" a forced emigration, because the whole truth about the extermination camps had not yet come through. Of course, there were also people who had gone underground or emigrated in time, but money was needed for that. At a so called diving address, people often had to pay for board and lodging. Consequently, there were proportionally more victims among the poorer Jews. This changed after the establishment of the LO, because they also provided money and ration stamps.
On August 25, 1942 alone, hundreds Jews were arrested and deported from Limburg. They were gathered in the school building on Professor Pieter Willemsstraat behind the Maastricht train station. Most of them were deported from Westerbork on August 28. [2]
Although so many people were murdered, there were more Jews in Limburg at the end of the war than before, but these were often other people, mainly refugees from the west of the country.
There was one resistance organization that specialized entirely in rescuing and housing mainly Jewish children, mostly from the nursery across the street from the Hollandsche Schouwburg in Amsterdam [3.1], both of which were used by the Nazis as collection points for the deportations. This group called itself NV, which was deliberately derived from the abbreviation for stock corporation, and was founded by the Musch brothers. Of the hundreds of children rescued, not a single one fell into the hands of the Nazis. For more information, see NV. [3.2]
After the liberation of large parts of Limburg, those in hiding, including the Jews, could re-emerge. However, many of them could not yet go home, as this was still in German hands. Non-Dutch Jews in particular initially received no support or shelter in some communities.
By November 25, 1941, German and Austrian Jews who had fled to the Netherlands had lost their German citizenship and had become stateless. In Limburg, this involved about 600 people. [1, p.94]

In order to compensate the war victims as much as possible, the government had established the Herstelfonds (Restoration Fund). A person could apply to it through the municipality. Especially in the initial phase after liberation, some municipalities refused to process applications from stateless Jews. The CIB (a department of the Union of Dutch Municipalities [4]) had to exert pressure to make the mayor change his attitude. The mayor of Obbicht and Papenhoven was not willing to financially support the Katz family (four persons), who had re-emerged in this municipality, with the money from the Herstelfonds because the family was of German origin. [1, p.325]
Also in Limburg, people returned home, who had either survived the camps or had been in hiding and now wanted to resume their pre-war lives. Often they had deposited valuables with people like neighbours etc. As a rule, the joy of seeing each other again was great, and those who had returned were immediately given their belongings. However, there were also cases where this did not happen. See the story that took place in Valkenburg about the estate of the murdered Soesman-Horn couple. [5]
The Jews mentioned on this website can be divided into three groups, which of course partly overlap: the Jewish members of the resistance, the victims of the Shoa and the Jews in hiding. Most of the people in groups 2 and 3 have a connection to Valkenburg and its surroundings: those in group 2 lived there, those in group 3 were in hiding there. More details about these two groups can be found in the book by Jan Diederen: “42 Jews from Valkenburg arrested and killed”.

  1. Vervolgd in Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands Joden en Sinti in Nederlands Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog
    isbn 978-90-8704-353-7
    Een licht bewerkte uitgave van het proefschrift waarop Herman van Rens op 22-03-2013 is gepromoveerd aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam
    ©2013 Hilversum
  2. Herdenking 80 jaar deportaties vanuit Maastricht
  3. 1. Hollandsche Schouwburg, Wikipedia • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançais
    2. NV
  4. Over het CIB
  5. Soesman-Horn, Valkenburg
    Biogr. Emma Horn & Servaas Soesman
  6. ✡ Valkenburg ✡
  7. Stolpersteine App BeNeLux. Interactive kaart.
  8. Wikipedia • Nederlandse gemeenten met StolpersteineStolpersteine in den Niederlanden
  9. Yad Vashem Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
    Internationaal Holocaust Herdenkingscentrum
  10. Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Ook 45 uit Valkenburg gedeporteerde Joden keerden niet meer terug. De Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg werd opgericht om ter nagedachtenis van de omgekomen Valkenburgse Joden, zogeheten struikelstenen in het trottoir vóór het huis te leggen van waaruit zij werden gedeporteerd. Met een complete lijst.
    Zie ook Stolpersteine op Wikipedia
  11. De 133 Joodse slachtoffers in Roermond
  12. Stichting Lodewijk Foijer Stolpersteine in Heerlen Op 25 augustus 1942 werd de eerste groep joden vanuit Heerlen gedeporteerd naar de Duitse vernietigingskampen.
  13. Stichting Stolpersteine Sittard-Geleen: Slachtoffers
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Links List Resistance WW2

Limburgse monumenten vertellen 1940-1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
83

Digital name memorial Oranjehotel Pagina is in het Nederlands
It is one of the most frequently asked questions: who was imprisoned in the Orange Hotel? Unfortunately, there is no complete list of all prisoners. Much of the prison records were destroyed by the German occupiers shortly before the liberation.
See also Oranjehotel & Waalsdorpervlakte82

Jan van Lieshout, Het Hannibalspiel Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
A sinister game during World War II of the counterintelligence service of the Kriegsmarine (Marineabwehr), which led to the downfall of three Dutch-Belgian resistance groups, ISBN 10: 9026945744 ISBN 13: 978902694574880

Loenen Field of Honour Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Over 3,900 war victims are buried at Loenen Field of Honour and include those who lost their lives in different places around the world due to various circumstances. There are military personnel, members of the resistance, people who escaped the Netherlands and went to England during the first years of the WWII to join the Allies (‘Engelandvaarders’), victims of reprisal and forced labour and …79

Markante feiten in Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
Remarkable facts in (Belgian) Limburg during the Second World War
Anyone who thinks that hardly any resistance took place in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium should definitely read this document. The emphasis is on the armed resistance. Author: Mathieu Rutten.78

Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Also 45 Jews deported from Valkenburg did not return. The Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg (“Foundation Stumbling Stones Valkenburg”) was established to place so-called stumbling stones in the sidewalk in front of the house from which they were deported, in memory of the murdered Jews from Valkenburg. With a complete list.
See also Stolperstein on Wikipedia.77

Roermond Front City Pagina is in het Nederlands
Series of stories by Eric Munnicks about the last months of the war.
See also the other War Stories of the Roermond Municipal Archives. Unfortunately no translation available. 76

Limburg 75 jaar vrij Pagina is in het Nederlands
75

Belgium WWII Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page disponible en Français;
A virtual platform on Belgium and its inhabitants during the Second World War74

Former concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof, Alsace Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
European Centre of Deported Resistance Members. Camp and museum73

The Jewish Victims of National Socialism in Cologne | A–Z Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar
72

Documentation Center on the National-Socialism in Cologne Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Virtual visit of the museum and the memorial in 8 languages, amongst them Hebrew and Spanish71

Camp Vught National Memorial Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
The Camp Vught National Memorial (Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught) is located on a part of the former SS camp Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, also known as Camp Vught (January 1943 – September 1944).70

The Margraten Boys - About the US War Cemetery Page available in English
Harrowing and redeeming, this is the history of a unique ‘adoption’ system. For generations, local families, grateful for the sacrifice of their liberators from Nazi occupation, have cared for not only the graves, but the memories, of over 10,000 US soldiers in the cemetery of Margraten in the Netherlands.
Free e-book by Peter Schrijvers. More e-books on WWII, in English and Dutch, by this author: https://www.google.de/search?hl=de&tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Peter+Schrijvers%2268

The Jewish Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Every victim of the Holocaust who was murdered is memorialised on the Joods Monument with a personal profile. The Jewish Monument is not only suitable for searching and commemorating. You can supplement the monument with photos, documents and stories, by making family connections and adding members of families. To place a call and get in touch with other users. You can also add information about stumbling stones and important other external links.67

When the miners go on strike against the German occupiers Pagina is in het Nederlands
The mine strike in Limburg started on April 29th, 1943. The workload was rising and rising. The first Dutch men were forced to work in Germany. The immediate reason was General Christiansen’s order to arrest all released prisoners of war from the Dutch army again and to transport them to Germany. The strike is broken up by means of executions.66

Persecuted in Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Jews and Sinti in Dutch Limburg during the Second World War
ISBN 978-90-8704-353-7
Dissertation by Herman van Rens on 03/22/2013, University of Amsterdam, slightly edited
© 2013 Hilversum65

Ons verblijf in het dorp Mergel (dagboek) (Meerssen 1989) Pagina is in het Nederlands
Our stay in the village of Mergel (diary, Meerssen 1989
Joop Geijsen from Meerssen tells how he and two other boys went into hiding for a year in the limestone caves just outside Meerssen, which was later called the diver’s inn.
As far as we know, sold out and only available in Dutch libraries.64

Yad Vashem Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
The World Holocaust Remembrance Center63

Beelden van verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands
This book shows, how every Dutch generation deals differently with the past of resistance.
If you can read Dutch, you can find the download link for this essay by Sander Bastiaan Kromhout
Published by the Nationaal Comité 4 en 5 May, 2018
Print edition ISBN 9077294244.62

Regional Historic Center Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Limburg has numerous specialized archive institutions that preserve relevant historical sources concerning World War II. However, it is not always clear to the public for which information they can go where. Archives have overlapping work areas, organizations and people have been active in the past in different areas and in different fields. So it often takes a long time to find the right place to find information.
Here you can search, but also share your documents with other interested parties. This can be done by donating them to existing archives or museums, or by making digital copies of the available documents or images.61

War deads in Nijmegen 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
With search function60

Foundation Dutch Resistance Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Names of resistance fighters in the Netherlands and colonies during the Second World War59

La résistance durant la guerre 1940-1945 Page disponible en Français;
It is mainly about the network “Clarence” whose founder was Walther Dewez; evoked are also the names of various agents of Visé and the Fourons that were part of this movement.58

Fallen resistance people Maastricht Pagina is in het Nederlands
A brief description and a long gallery of portraits57

Stichting Herinnering LO-LKP Pagina is in het Nederlands
The foundation remembrance of LO-LKP wants to raise awareness of the history of the resistance by the organisations LO and LKP. To this end, she makes the contents of his memorial book and many original documents available to the interested reader in digital form.56

The Forgotten Genocide – The Fate of the Sinti and Roma Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English
Also known as Gipsies.55

1944-2019 ⇒ South Limburg 75 years free! ⇐ Pagina is in het Nederlands
An overview of the activities in South Limburg around this memorable anniversary in september. It is celebrated in every municipality.54

Short historic American film about the Divers Inn Pagina is in het Nederlands
A silent film, shot by a USAmerican team after the liberation of Valkenburg. The first part has been re-enacted, with the help of the Valkenburg resistance. It shows how people going into hiding (divers) were taken to the divers inn. The man in the hat is always Pierre Schunck. The film starts at his home in Plenkertstraat, Valkenburg. The role of the policeman on the bike at the start is not entirely clear. According to the accompanying text, this is a courier.53

Database persoonsbewijzen uit de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
About Dutch identity cards in the Second World War as well as images of identity cards in combination with other documents and genealogical and personal data including life stories.49

Memorial stone for the resistance people Coenen and Francotte Pagina is in het Nederlands
In front of the Provincial Resistance Monument in Valkenburg. Here the underground fighters Sjeng (John) Coenen and Joep (Joe) Francotte were murdered on 5 September 1944, just before the liberation of Valkenburg48

Resistance Memorial of the dutch province of Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Every year on May 4, the commemoration ceremony for the fallen of this province takes place here. Meanwhile, also the veterans are no longer among us anymore.47

Call to everyone, but especially to the residents of Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
On September 17, 2019 it will be 75 years ago that the town and all villages of the current municipality of Valkenburg aan de Geul were liberated.
To commemorate the liberation and to display the wartime as accurately as possible, the Museum Land van Valkenburg is looking for personal stories, eye witnesses and tangible memories.
Of all these lifelike stories, materials, photos, footage and equipment, we are organizing a unique and as complete as possible overview exhibition under the name “We Do Remember”46

Roll of honor of the fallen, 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
A website commissioned by the dutch Second Chamber (~ House of Representatives). The Honor Roll of Fallen 1940-1945 includes those who fell as a result of resistance or as a soldier.45

Grenzeloos verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands Page disponible en Français;
Borderless resistance – On Spying Monks, escape lines and the “Hannibal Game”, 1940-1943
ISBN 9789056220723
Paul de Jongh describes in detail an escape line from the Netherlands to Belgium. Unique case study on the resistance in World War II on both sides of the Belgian-Dutch border. Focus is on the Belgian side. Extends the book by Cammaert, especially where it concerns the group Erkens in Maastricht.44

The hidden front Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
History of the organized resistance in the Dutch province of Limburg during World War II
PhD thesis 1994, by CAMMAERT, Alfred Paul Marie.
The complete book in Dutch, with English summary, on the website of the University of Groningen.
Core literature!43

Forgotten History – Pierre Schunck, Resistance Fighter Page available in English
42

World War II in South Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Very many pictures ordered by municipality. For Valkenburg: many pictures from the Nazi boarding school for boys Reichsschule der SS (former Jesuit convent) and from the days of liberation, by Frans Hoffman.40

Sources Network on World War II (NOB) Pagina is in het Nederlands
Search in 9 million documents, movies and pictures about and from World War II in the Netherlands.39

Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide
Issues related to war violence generate a lot of interest from society and demand independent academic research. NIOD conducts and stimulates such research and its collections are open to all those who are interested.38

Limburg gaf joden WOII meeste kans Pagina is in het Nederlands
Dutch Jews had the best chance of going into hiding and surviving the Holocaust in the province of Limburg. This is apparent from the dissertation on the persecution of Jews and Sinti in Limburg during the Second World War by the historian from Beek, Herman van Rens at the University of Amsterdam.
More info in Dutch36

Tweede Wereldoorlog en bijzondere rechtspleging Pagina is in het Nederlands
About the trials of Dutchmen who collaborated with the occupiers: The so-called special administration of justice. This page shows you the way. Here you will find photos, the most used keywords, references to interesting archives, indexes, websites, personal stories and guides for research.35

Nederlands Auschwitz Comité Pagina is in het Nederlands
34

Secret Army Zone II/Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
About the failed attempt to set up a complete guerrilla army in Belgian Limburg. Use the built-in translator20

resistance in Enschede Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
19

30th Infantry Division Old Hickory Page available in English
Liberators of South-Limburg17

Bond van Oud-Stoottroepers en Stoottroepers Pagina is in het Nederlands
16

The Dutch Underground and the Stoottroepers Page available in English
Stoottroepen (Stormtroopers) consisted of the ancient resistant fighters who entered in the Dutch army after the liberation of Limburg, to participate in the war against the fascism.15

 

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