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The names on the walls


Limburg 1940-1945,
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1940-1945 Special events and backgrounds in the dutch province of Limburg

National Socialism and Racism | The genocide of the Jews in Limburg | The genocide of the Romani in Limburg and elsewhere | The resistance in Valkenburg | SiPo Maastricht | The Englandspiel | The OD trial of Maastricht | The Danger of Lists | The Hannibal game | The strikes of April-May 1943 | A military training camp for people in hiding | Between Maas and Peel | The Treason of Maastricht | The Raid of Weert | The Raid on the Distribution Office in Valkenburg | The Strike of Wittem | Eleven imprisoned resistance fighters from Nijmegen murdered | The raid on the Maastricht prison | Revenge actions during the liberation of southern Limburg | Winter ’44-’45 in the liberated territory | The Tears of Roermond | The forced evacuation to Friesland, Groningen and Drente |

The Tears of Roermond

Memorial Lüsekamp

The following is about the expulsion of almost the entire male population from the frontline city of Roermond between Christmas and New Year’s Eve 1944, and not just the beginning of it, which is the subject of the film Het verdriet van Roermond (the mourning of Roermond). [14]
After the liberation of South Limburg and the area west of the Maas River and the failed Battle of Arnhem, the Maas River in Central and North Limburg remained the front line for the time being.

Already on September 9, 1944, the Germans had decided to annex the area east of the Meuse and north of the Roer to Germany. The administration was handed over to the Gau Düsseldorf and a German mayor, Herr Lorenzen, arrived in Roermond. In mid-November 1944, the German "civilian" administration left the city and was replaced by a military authority. (roermond1939-1945.nl, Het verdriet van Roermond [1])
In Roermond, when it had been front city for over a month - arrived in the night of 25 to 26 November the depleted 1st battalion of the parachute regiment Kampfgruppe Hübner. The commander Ulrich Matthaeas became city commander (Ortskommandant) and because the west side of the Maas was liberated territory, he also became front section commander (Frontabschnitts­kommandant). A grim atmosphere immediately developed in the city. He and one of his subordinates, F.W. Held, practiced true terror there in December. The soldiers knew, of course, that the war was unwinnable and that they were hated. There was nothing left of the friendly face that the occupiers had initially put on. Most of the police were less and less willing to cooperate with their terror. At the same time, the demand for forced laborers in Germany was increasing. Matthaeas and one of his subordinates, F.W. Held, exercised downright terror in December. The hunt for people in hiding was also intensified for another reason. The Major had had a panic fear of partisans since his stay in Russia. When the Allies would cross the Meuse River, he feared being attacked from behind. Therefore, he sought an opportunity to get rid of the entire male population of “recruitable” age. That opportunity presented itself around Christmas 1944. By betrayal a hiding place of eleven Roermonders came to light, who were hiding under the floor of a classroom at the Schoolpath. Only Jacobus Sevenich, the father of Mathieu Sevenich mentioned below, managed to escape.
The remaining ten and two other detainees had to appear before a hastily assembled drumhead court-martial. The verdict was decided in advance: death by bullet.On December 26 and 27, 1944, the 14 were shot in the Elmpterbos just across the German border near Roermond: Louis Claessens, Frans Denis, Josef Fuchs, Johannes Hanno, Lambertus Janssens, Willem Jongen, Thijs Oljans, Wicher Oljans, Hubert Selder, Mathieu Sevenich, Jan Tobben, Louis Uphus (later reburied on the National Field of Honor in Loenen), Willem Winters and ‘Frans’, an escaped Polish prisoner of war.
A plaque on the facade of the St. Alphonsus School commemorates these victims. [2]
Matthaeas did not care which people in hiding he was going to have shot. For him it was not a question of unauthorized absence from labor service, listening to the English radio or other alleged crimes. It was irrelevant what political views these men and boys had or whether they were in the resistance. None of them were.
Neuere Forschung hat ergeben, dass einige der erschossenen Männer Mitglied bei einer oder gar mehreren nationalsozialistischen Organisationen waren. [Fred Cammaert in einer Mail an den Autor]
For Matthaeas this was not important. It was just about terror as a means to get the men and boys out of Roermond and furthermore to make them slaves.
Cammaert writes in chapter 6b [7.1], on pages 621-622: The twelve innocents were sentenced to death for ‘illegal activities’. That same day Matthaeas had them shot in the woods between Roermond and the German border village of Elmpt. The next day he had two more people, including a Pole, executed there. After the proclamation of the verdict and the order that all male inhabitants of Roermond and Maasniel aged between 16 and 60 had to register with the Ortskommandantur before December 30, 4:00 p.m. under penalty of death, a wave of horror swept through the city.
As a result, about 2800 Roermonders showed up. On December 30 they were forced to march in the freezing cold to Dülken, where they had to spend the night standing in the cycling arena in the open air. The next day they were taken by train to the transit camp Am Giebel in Wuppertal Varresbeck, a veritable slave market for the German war industry.
A large number of the Dutch, who had been seized by the Wehrmacht in the major raids in Rotterdam and Roermond only at the end of 1944 and deported to Wuppertal, were put to slave labor in the so called "Arbeitseinsatz" far away from the Dutch border in the Salzgitter and Lehrte area, probably to make escapes more difficult. (Gedenkbuch Wuppertal: Durchgangslager Giebel des Arbeitsamtes Wuppertal [8])

Many more details in the article of Fred Cammaert (Dutch, use https://www.deepl.com/translator#de/en/): Oorlogsmisdadiger Ulrich Matthaeas en de falende naoorlogse Duitse justitie (War criminal Ulrich Matthaeas and the failing postwar German justice system) [7.3]
On the old cemetery near the Schoolpad, popularly called the Aje Kirkhaof [5], a memorial stone permanently commemorates these dark events known as ‘het verdriet van Roermond’, the tears of Roermond. See article De Limburger, Nov. 21, 2019 – Herdenkingssteen voor veertien gefusilleerden op Oude Kerkhof in Roermond [10]
Just across the border, near the site of the executions, citizens from Niederkrüchten erected a memorial stone, Mahnmal Lüsekamp. [5][11]
The victims had had to dig and hoe their own graves there in the icy night. After the war, most of them were reburied at the monument in the cemetery Tussen de Bergen. [5][6]
See also the article in de Rheinische Post van 27 december 2016 (p. C6): Erinnerung an die Toten vom Lüsekamp [12]
The Dutch TV station NPS broadcasted on 10 mei 2006 on Nederland 3 the film below by Louis van Gasteren. Worth seeing already because of the pictures, even if you don’t understand Dutch [13]

Other the people in hiding also became victims of this manhunt. See the story of the “divers” at the farm Lindenhof.

In January, that sad history continued, but this time for the entire still-occupied part of the right bank of the Maas and for the entire population: The forced evacuation to Friesland, Groningen and Drente.

The victims (alphabetically):
Louis Arts ⦁ Alphons Ceulen ⦁ Louis Claessens ⦁ Franciscus Denis ⦁ Peter Fuchs ⦁ Johannes Hubertus Hanno ⦁ Gerard van den Heuvel ⦁ Herman Charles Joseph Hoogendijk ⦁ Lambertus Joseph Janssens ⦁ Willem Jongen ⦁ Mauk van Lamsweerde ⦁ Thijs Oljans ⦁ Wicher OljansFrans Polski jeniec ⦁ Adrianus Johannes Albertus Sars ⦁ Hubertus Selder ⦁ Mathieu Sevenich ⦁ Jan Catharina Tobben ⦁ Louis Uphus ⦁ Willem Winters

  1. roermond1939-1945.nl (web.archive.org) Verdriet van Roermond
  2. Plaquette St.-Alphonsusschool
  3. Tussen de Bergen, Roermond
  4. 4en5mei.nl Roermond Oorlogsmonument
  5. OpenStreetMap • Sint Alfonsusschool & Schoolpad, Roermond††† Tussen de bergen, RoermondMahnmal Lüsekamp, Elmpter Wald
  6. Gemeentelijke begraafplaats Tussen de Bergen, Roermond
  7. Dr. Fred Cammaert
    1. Het Verborgen Front – Geschiedenis van de georganiseerde illegaliteit in de provincie Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Doctorale scriptie 1994, Groningen 6b, De Landelijke Organisatie voor hulp aan onderduikers
    2. Sporen die bleven – razzia’s en deportaties in de herfst van 1944 in Noord- en Midden-Limburg
      Stichting Deportatie Oktober 1944 Noord- en Midden-Limburg, 1996
      ISBN 9090100210, 9789090100210
    3. Oorlogsmisdadiger Ulrich Matthaeas en de falende naoorlogse Duitse justitie
  8. Gedenkbuch Wuppertal: Durchgangslager Giebel des Arbeitsamtes Wuppertal
    Google maps Am Giebel, Zwangsarbeiter Durchgangslager
  9. liberationroute.com Audiospot • Razzia’s en verraadRazzien und VerratRaids and betrayal
  10. Artikel De Limburger 21-11-2019 – Herdenkingssteen voor veertien gefusilleerden op Oude Kerkhof in Roermond
  11. de.wikipedia: Mahnmal Lüsekamp
  12. Artikel Rheinische Post, 27.12.2016 (p. C6): Erinnerung an die Toten vom Lüsekamp
  13. www.archieven.nl Politieke opsporingsdienst, afdeling Roermond Darin: September 1944 - februari 1945 te Roermond
    111 Stukken betreffende het 1e bataljon van het 24e regiment Fallschirmjäger onder commando van majoor Ulrich Matthaeas en de door leden van dit batalon in Roermond en omstreken gepleegde oorlogsmisdrijven
  14. YouTube Het verdriet van Roermond, film van Louis van Gasteren, 10 mei 2006 NPS, Nederland 3

Links List Resistance WW2

Limburgse monumenten vertellen 1940-1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands

Digital name memorial Oranjehotel Pagina is in het Nederlands
It is one of the most frequently asked questions: who was imprisoned in the Orange Hotel? Unfortunately, there is no complete list of all prisoners. Much of the prison records were destroyed by the German occupiers shortly before the liberation.
See also Oranjehotel & Waalsdorpervlakte82

Jan van Lieshout, Het Hannibalspiel Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
A sinister game during World War II of the counterintelligence service of the Kriegsmarine (Marineabwehr), which led to the downfall of three Dutch-Belgian resistance groups, ISBN 10: 9026945744 ISBN 13: 978902694574880

Loenen Field of Honour Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Over 3,900 war victims are buried at Loenen Field of Honour and include those who lost their lives in different places around the world due to various circumstances. There are military personnel, members of the resistance, people who escaped the Netherlands and went to England during the first years of the WWII to join the Allies (‘Engelandvaarders’), victims of reprisal and forced labour and …79

Markante feiten in Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
Remarkable facts in (Belgian) Limburg during the Second World War
Anyone who thinks that hardly any resistance took place in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium should definitely read this document. The emphasis is on the armed resistance. Author: Mathieu Rutten.78

Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Also 45 Jews deported from Valkenburg did not return. The Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg (“Foundation Stumbling Stones Valkenburg”) was established to place so-called stumbling stones in the sidewalk in front of the house from which they were deported, in memory of the murdered Jews from Valkenburg. With a complete list.
See also Stolperstein on Wikipedia.77

Roermond Front City Pagina is in het Nederlands
Series of stories by Eric Munnicks about the last months of the war.
See also the other War Stories of the Roermond Municipal Archives. Unfortunately no translation available. 76

Limburg 75 jaar vrij Pagina is in het Nederlands

Belgium WWII Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page disponible en Français;
A virtual platform on Belgium and its inhabitants during the Second World War74

Former concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof, Alsace Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
European Centre of Deported Resistance Members. Camp and museum73

The Jewish Victims of National Socialism in Cologne | A–Z Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar

Documentation Center on the National-Socialism in Cologne Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Virtual visit of the museum and the memorial in 8 languages, amongst them Hebrew and Spanish71

Camp Vught National Memorial Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
The Camp Vught National Memorial (Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught) is located on a part of the former SS camp Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, also known as Camp Vught (January 1943 – September 1944).70

The Margraten Boys - About the US War Cemetery Page available in English
Harrowing and redeeming, this is the history of a unique ‘adoption’ system. For generations, local families, grateful for the sacrifice of their liberators from Nazi occupation, have cared for not only the graves, but the memories, of over 10,000 US soldiers in the cemetery of Margraten in the Netherlands.
Free e-book by Peter Schrijvers. More e-books on WWII, in English and Dutch, by this author: https://www.google.de/search?hl=de&tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Peter+Schrijvers%2268

The Jewish Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Every victim of the Holocaust who was murdered is memorialised on the Joods Monument with a personal profile. The Jewish Monument is not only suitable for searching and commemorating. You can supplement the monument with photos, documents and stories, by making family connections and adding members of families. To place a call and get in touch with other users. You can also add information about stumbling stones and important other external links.67

When the miners go on strike against the German occupiers Pagina is in het Nederlands
The mine strike in Limburg started on April 29th, 1943. The workload was rising and rising. The first Dutch men were forced to work in Germany. The immediate reason was General Christiansen’s order to arrest all released prisoners of war from the Dutch army again and to transport them to Germany. The strike is broken up by means of executions.66

Persecuted in Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Jews and Sinti in Dutch Limburg during the Second World War
ISBN 978-90-8704-353-7
Dissertation by Herman van Rens on 03/22/2013, University of Amsterdam, slightly edited
© 2013 Hilversum65

Ons verblijf in het dorp Mergel (dagboek) (Meerssen 1989) Pagina is in het Nederlands
Our stay in the village of Mergel (diary, Meerssen 1989
Joop Geijsen from Meerssen tells how he and two other boys went into hiding for a year in the limestone caves just outside Meerssen, which was later called the diver’s inn.
As far as we know, sold out and only available in Dutch libraries.64

Yad Vashem Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
The World Holocaust Remembrance Center63

Beelden van verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands
This book shows, how every Dutch generation deals differently with the past of resistance.
If you can read Dutch, you can find the download link for this essay by Sander Bastiaan Kromhout
Published by the Nationaal Comité 4 en 5 May, 2018
Print edition ISBN 9077294244.62

Regional Historic Center Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Limburg has numerous specialized archive institutions that preserve relevant historical sources concerning World War II. However, it is not always clear to the public for which information they can go where. Archives have overlapping work areas, organizations and people have been active in the past in different areas and in different fields. So it often takes a long time to find the right place to find information.
Here you can search, but also share your documents with other interested parties. This can be done by donating them to existing archives or museums, or by making digital copies of the available documents or images.61

War deads in Nijmegen 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
With search function60

Foundation Dutch Resistance Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Names of resistance fighters in the Netherlands and colonies during the Second World War59

La résistance durant la guerre 1940-1945 Page disponible en Français;
It is mainly about the network “Clarence” whose founder was Walther Dewez; evoked are also the names of various agents of Visé and the Fourons that were part of this movement.58

Fallen resistance people Maastricht Pagina is in het Nederlands
A brief description and a long gallery of portraits57

Stichting Herinnering LO-LKP Pagina is in het Nederlands
The foundation remembrance of LO-LKP wants to raise awareness of the history of the resistance by the organisations LO and LKP. To this end, she makes the contents of his memorial book and many original documents available to the interested reader in digital form.56

The Forgotten Genocide – The Fate of the Sinti and Roma Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English
Also known as Gipsies.55

1944-2019 ⇒ South Limburg 75 years free! ⇐ Pagina is in het Nederlands
An overview of the activities in South Limburg around this memorable anniversary in september. It is celebrated in every municipality.54

Short historic American film about the Divers Inn Pagina is in het Nederlands
A silent film, shot by a USAmerican team after the liberation of Valkenburg. The first part has been re-enacted, with the help of the Valkenburg resistance. It shows how people going into hiding (divers) were taken to the divers inn. The man in the hat is always Pierre Schunck. The film starts at his home in Plenkertstraat, Valkenburg. The role of the policeman on the bike at the start is not entirely clear. According to the accompanying text, this is a courier.53

Database persoonsbewijzen uit de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
About Dutch identity cards in the Second World War as well as images of identity cards in combination with other documents and genealogical and personal data including life stories.49

Memorial stone for the resistance people Coenen and Francotte Pagina is in het Nederlands
In front of the Provincial Resistance Monument in Valkenburg. Here the underground fighters Sjeng (John) Coenen and Joep (Joe) Francotte were murdered on 5 September 1944, just before the liberation of Valkenburg48

Resistance Memorial of the dutch province of Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Every year on May 4, the commemoration ceremony for the fallen of this province takes place here. Meanwhile, also the veterans are no longer among us anymore.47

Call to everyone, but especially to the residents of Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
On September 17, 2019 it will be 75 years ago that the town and all villages of the current municipality of Valkenburg aan de Geul were liberated.
To commemorate the liberation and to display the wartime as accurately as possible, the Museum Land van Valkenburg is looking for personal stories, eye witnesses and tangible memories.
Of all these lifelike stories, materials, photos, footage and equipment, we are organizing a unique and as complete as possible overview exhibition under the name “We Do Remember”46

Roll of honor of the fallen, 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
A website commissioned by the dutch Second Chamber (~ House of Representatives). The Honor Roll of Fallen 1940-1945 includes those who fell as a result of resistance or as a soldier.45

Grenzeloos verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands Page disponible en Français;
Borderless resistance – On Spying Monks, escape lines and the “Hannibal Game”, 1940-1943
ISBN 9789056220723
Paul de Jongh describes in detail an escape line from the Netherlands to Belgium. Unique case study on the resistance in World War II on both sides of the Belgian-Dutch border. Focus is on the Belgian side. Extends the book by Cammaert, especially where it concerns the group Erkens in Maastricht.44

The hidden front Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
History of the organized resistance in the Dutch province of Limburg during World War II
PhD thesis 1994, by CAMMAERT, Alfred Paul Marie.
The complete book in Dutch, with English summary, on the website of the University of Groningen.
Core literature!43

Forgotten History – Pierre Schunck, Resistance Fighter Page available in English

World War II in South Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Very many pictures ordered by municipality. For Valkenburg: many pictures from the Nazi boarding school for boys Reichsschule der SS (former Jesuit convent) and from the days of liberation, by Frans Hoffman.40

Sources Network on World War II (NOB) Pagina is in het Nederlands
Search in 9 million documents, movies and pictures about and from World War II in the Netherlands.39

Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide
Issues related to war violence generate a lot of interest from society and demand independent academic research. NIOD conducts and stimulates such research and its collections are open to all those who are interested.38

Limburg gaf joden WOII meeste kans Pagina is in het Nederlands
Dutch Jews had the best chance of going into hiding and surviving the Holocaust in the province of Limburg. This is apparent from the dissertation on the persecution of Jews and Sinti in Limburg during the Second World War by the historian from Beek, Herman van Rens at the University of Amsterdam.
More info in Dutch36

Tweede Wereldoorlog en bijzondere rechtspleging Pagina is in het Nederlands
About the trials of Dutchmen who collaborated with the occupiers: The so-called special administration of justice. This page shows you the way. Here you will find photos, the most used keywords, references to interesting archives, indexes, websites, personal stories and guides for research.35

Nederlands Auschwitz Comité Pagina is in het Nederlands

Secret Army Zone II/Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
About the failed attempt to set up a complete guerrilla army in Belgian Limburg. Use the built-in translator20

resistance in Enschede Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English

30th Infantry Division Old Hickory Page available in English
Liberators of South-Limburg17

Bond van Oud-Stoottroepers en Stoottroepers Pagina is in het Nederlands

The Dutch Underground and the Stoottroepers Page available in English
Stoottroepen (Stormtroopers) consisted of the ancient resistant fighters who entered in the Dutch army after the liberation of Limburg, to participate in the war against the fascism.15